Author: Eporu Ronald
Last update: Mar 24, 2015
Summary of Innovation
First aid consists of taking 2 liters of drinking water per day, and ample intake of cool fresh air as a remedy called aerotherapy. My innovation entails a mobile App and E-book/book that guide users to detect the earliest symptoms of malaria and flu, and then quickly apply first aid to prevent severity of malaria and longevity of flu. These products enable users to quickly detect itchiness/scratchiness of throat and sneezing, as the earliest signs of flu infection having been exposed to a flu victim. First aid is then quickly applied to cut durations of flu illness from 12 days to 4 days, by preventing late symptoms such as; nasal congestion, nasal discharge, fever, headache, cough and body aches. I have achieved these positive results in 17 out of my 19 trials over the last 3 years and 9 months (Jan 2011- Oct 2014). A positive result minimizes the spread of flu by blocking infectious symptoms like; sneezing, nasal discharge, fever and cough. My products also enable users to detect joint pains, dullness of taste/appetite and thirst/dark urine, as the earliest symptoms of malaria then quickly apply first aid. First aid has often enabled me to prevent severe symptoms of malaria like; fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and body aches, in 7 out of my 9 trials in 5 years (Nov 2009-Nov 2014). This result can keep a patient physically fit for a period of days to weeks while searching for genuine antimalarial medication. Drinking water is a very good conductor of heat, which enables a body to drain out excess heat through frequent urination and maximal sweating, and thus, prevents fever and preserves appetite.

Origin of  Innovation

I fell ill with typhoid fever in May 2000 which kept on recurring for 2 years, as it could not respond to repeated doses of chloramphenical drugs. In 2002, this persistent fever served as an opportunity for me to discover medicinal effects of cool fresh air in controlling fever, as I regularly spent time outdoors in the paths of cool winds. In the same year, I invented a procedure of using light beddings for higher exposure to air to optimize breathing and inhibit fever through the night, as a method for indoor aerotherapy. It complements outdoor method for aerotherapy, which entails spending time outdoors in light attire and open foot wear, where one maximizes intake of cool winds. Aerotherapy was originally applied to treat tuberculosis in Switzerland before 1944. Adherence to a combination of both methods of aerotherapy enabled me to gradually recover from typhoid fever. It involves considerable exposure to cool winds to inhibit fever in a bid to stimulate natural healing of the body. A few weeks into my new invention I discovered a new application of aerotherapy in preventing severity and cut durations of flu by preventing various symptoms including; nasal discharge, cough, fever, headache, Est. Successful application of aerotherapy to abort flu infections often depends on identifying earliest symptoms then applying it immediately. In 2011, I discovered that drinking 2 liters of water per day upon identifying the earliest symptoms of malaria and flu, boosts effects of aerotherapy in preventing or controlling fevers with all associated symptoms.

Scientific Rationale (Basis) for First Aid

Drinking water facilitates thermoregulation to maintain normal body temperature [3-4]. Drinking at least 2 liters of water per day upon identifying the earliest symptoms of malaria, induces sweating and frequent urination that transmit excess heat out of the body to prevent; fever, dehydration and headache. Dehydration has been associated with a range of symptoms such as; headache, general discomfort, irritability, loss of appetite, decreased volume of urine and dark urine [5]. Malaria parasites produce sticky proteins on the surfaces of infected red blood cells (rbs), which makes these red cells stick to walls of tiny blood vessels in body joints [6]. It makes body joints among the first organs where joint pains can be felt, due to accumulation of poorly oxygenated rbs that block tiny blood vessels within body joints. Drinking sufficient water on time increases the volume of blood plasma that dilates tiny blood vessels, to reduce stickiness of infected rbc to blood vessels, and facilitate their efficient transportation to the spleen. Rapid elimination of infected rbs from the blood stream inhibits multiplication of malaria parasites and invasion of new rbs, thus, rendering malaria parasites too sparse for common laboratory diagnoses. Similarly, sickle cells have been observed to express sticky molecules on their surfaces that appear to increase adherence of sickle rbc to vascular endothelium [7-8]. In that respect doctors who treat sickle cell patients recommend them to be constantly well hydrated, to prevent their sickle rbc from clumping and blocking tiny blood vessels in body joints, which would cause a sickle cell crises or severe malaria in them. First aid’s effect of keeping the population of malaria parasites very low appears to make it needless for the immune system to generate substantial amounts of cytokines that cause fever. Proinflammatory cytokines mediate fever in response to exogenous pyrogens like malaria parasites in the body [9].

A link has been established between outbreaks of symptomatic malaria and spells of hot humid weather in recent studies [1]. This relationship indirectly supports my concept of application of first aid to inhibit presentation with various symptoms of malaria. Constant exposure of significant body parts to cool air through methods of aerotherapy, facilitates rapid loss of excess body heat through convection and radiation to prevent fever. A relatively cool and relaxed body enhances deep breathing with maximal respiration. Cool fresh air has been observed to be rich in oxygen with the effect of boosting proliferation of antibodies among practitioners of aerotherapy [10]. This implies that the component of aerotherapy in first aid appears to boost multiplication of antibodies needed to fight off parasites. It should be noted that part of the immune response called phagocytosis requires plenty of oxygen in the process of breaking down microbes or germs that cause diseases [11]. Adherence to aerotherapy makes oxygen readily and adequately available to the body. Aerotherapy has originally been applied in the treatment of tuberculosis in mountain resorts of Switzerland; a disease which also presents a symptom of fever [2]. The use of light bedding as part of indoor aerotherapy keeps the body relatively cool and relaxed, to enhance deep breathing that sustains quality sleep through the night. A relatively cool bedroom, as cool as 18ºC, is conducive to enjoying quality fast sleep [12]. Quality sleep boosts natural immunity of patients to pathogens [13]. Poor quality of sleep increases inflammation [14]. I discovered a link between poor quality of sleep characterized by frequent occurrence of nightmares and excessive applications of warm beddings that stifle breathing, while suffering from a recurring typhoid fever. My discovery now enables me to spend long spells of time without ever getting nightmares; it is only a condition that makes breathing difficult that can cause a nightmare.

The effects of first aid in preventing complete loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting confirms one of the long standing hypotheses in medical science. Thermostatic hypothesis asserts that a decrease in body temperature below a given set-point induces appetite, whereas an increase in body temperature above a set point inhibits appetite [15]. Hypothalamus functions as a form of thermostat for a human body [16]. It stimulates digestion to generate heat that compensates for any significant loss of body heat occurring through first aid, thus, sustaining appetite. Conversely, higher levels of body temperature due to fever triggers the hypothalamus to inhibit digestion to stem heat generation. Inhibition of digestion involves loss of appetite, nausea and may include vomiting. Vomiting prevents digestion of gut content that would otherwise generate more heat, as vomit itself discharges some heat.

Optimal exposure to cool fresh air facilitates loss of excess body heat through convection and radiation to prevent fever. Optimal cooling of the body prevents nasal congestion and nasal discharge in events of flu infection, through preventing vasodilation in blood vessels near body surfaces such as; the nasal cavity, upper respiratory tract and skin. Dilation of blood vessels near the skin, nasal cavity and respiratory surface causes nasal congestion, which in turn aids nasal discharge. Keeping the body cool keeps the air ways open and clear, as blood vessels near respiratory surfaces remain constricted with minimal blood volumes, which consequently; stems sneezing, prevents nasal congestion, prevents nasal discharge and prevents inflammation of these organs. It also appears that vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin redirects blood to internal organs like the spleen to expedite clearance of malaria parasites from the blood stream. First aid restricts body temperature to a healthy range of 36.1ºC to 37.0ºC.


First aid appears to be highly effective in controlling symptoms of malaria once applied in the earliest stages of malaria illness. Protection against severe malaria illness requires drinking plenty of water and getting optimal fresh aeration of the body to alleviate symptoms as one seeks standardized medical care.


  • If one falls sick in a remote place where malaria drugs are not readily accessible, one can rely on first aid as he/she searches for the nearest health clinic.
  • Frequent stock out of drugs in our health centers has raised need for first aid, which can sustain adults while they wait for new deliveries or seek for alternative sources.
  • First aid prevents loss of working hours by eliminating the need for daytime bed rest.
  • First aid keeps patients physically strong to walk extra miles or wait an extra days/week for genuine drugs to avoid buying counterfeit drugs.
  • Resources used to admit adult patients in health centers can be reallocated to children, since adults that effectively use first aid can get treated as outpatients.
  • Reduces duration of flu illness/symptoms from 12 days to only 4 days.
  • Cuts the spread of flu by inhibiting sneezing and preventing cough, which are contagious symptoms that transmit flu.
  • It will enable effective control of future flu pandemics unlike the past flu pandemic of 1918 that killed about 50 million people.
  • Alleviates abuse of antibiotics in the treatment of flu. Growing resistance to antibiotics is a ticking time bomb.
  • First aid can be applied as supportive treatment for typhoid fever and tuberculosis.



I hold a Bachelor of Science (Hon) in Quantitative Economics degree from Makerere University, which has empowered me with skills in literature review, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation and report writing for conducting scientific research.

I have obtained 3 certificates in General Influenza with 2 tests in p2009 Influenza, from Minnesota Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance on line training.
I have also studied all online training modules on Immunology offered by the University of South Carolina.




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